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CONTENTS | INVOCATION | INTRODUCTION | PROLOGUE | 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | 6 | 7 | 8 | 9 | 10 | 11 | 12 | 13 | 14 | 15 | 16 | 17 | 18 | 19 | 20 | 21
WS FORUM

INVOCATION

Synopsis
Title Page
This Archive
Advisors and Contributors
Foreword by Ninian Smart
How to obtain a printed (hardbound/paperback) version

PROLOGUE:
MANY PATHS TO ONE GOAL

The Truth in Many Paths
Tolerance and Respect for All Believers

INTRODUCTION
The Purpose of World Scripture
The Organization of World Scripture
The World's Religions and Their Scriptures
Acknowledgements
Notes

ESSAY:
World Scripture and Education for Peace

PART ONE:
Ultimate Reality and the Purpose of Human Existence

CHAPTER 1: Ultimate Reality
Traces of God's Existence
The One
Formless, Emptiness, Mystery
Transcendent, All-Pervasive Reality
Sovereign and Omnipotent
Omniscient
Immanent and Near at Hand
Eternal -- in a World of Transience
The Creator
Goodness and Love
Divine Father and Mother

CHAPTER 2: Divine Law, Truth, and Cosmic Principle
Eternal Truth
Moral Law
The Decalogue
The Golden Rule
Polarity, Relationality, and Interdependence
Cosmic Justice

CHAPTER 3: The Purpose of Life for the Individual
Joy and Happiness
For God's Good Pleasure
Image of God and Temple of God
Inborn Goodness and Conscience
Original Mind, No Mind
Perfection
True Love

CHAPTER 4: The Purpose of Life in the Family and in Society
The Family
Parents and Children
Husband and Wife
Friendship
Unity and Community
Equality
The People of God
The Ideal Society

CHAPTER 5: The Purpose of Life in the Natural World
The Sanctity of Nature
Reverence for Life
The Microcosm
Dominion
The Lord of Spirits
Creation Rejoices

CHAPTER 6: Life Beyond Death and the Spiritual World
The Spiritual World: Mystery, Multiplicity, Analogy, Harmony
The Immortal Soul
Prepare Now for Eternity
Passage Beyond
Heaven
Hell
Spiritual Benefactors
Spiritual Error and the Occult

PART TWO:
Evil, Sin, and the Human Fall

CHAPTER 7: The Human Condition
Ill
The War Within
Ignorance
Idolatry
Pride and Egotism
Selfish Desire, Lust, and Greed

CHAPTER 8: Fall and Deviation
The Human Fall
Demonic Powers
Heresy
Degraded Human Nature
God's Grief

CHAPTER 9: The Major Sins
Good and Evil
Adultery
Murder
Theft
Lying and Deceit
Hypocrisy
Slander, Gossip and Foul Speech
Addiction

PART THREE:
Salvation and the Savior

CHAPTER 10: Salvation-Liberation-Enlightenment
Grace
Universal Salvation
Atonement and Forgiveness of Sins
Healing
Liberation
Enlightenment
Crossing the Waters
Reversal and Restoration
Peace
Help and Deliverance
The Refining Fire
Born Anew
Eternal Life
The Unitive State

CHAPTER 11: The Founder
Call and Awakening
Rejected by the World
The Victor
He Who Subjugates Satan
The Revealer of Truth
The Man for Others
The Living Presence
The Person and Character of the Founder: Divine Person
Human Person
The Succession of Founders and Messengers

PART FOUR:
The Religious Life

CHAPTER 12: Responsibility and Predestination
Decision
Individual Responsibility
Synergy
Predestination
Karma and Inherited Sin
Duty

CHAPTER 13: Self-cultivation and Spiritual Growth
Spiritual Growth
Cultivate the Good
Sincerity
Purity
Self-Control
Preparing the Start
Vigilance
Perseverance and Patience

CHAPTER 14: Faith
Faith
Devotion and Praise
Fear, Submission, and Obedience
Anxiety
Gratitude
Argument with God

CHAPTER 15: Wisdom
The Search for Knowledge
Scripture and Tradition
Poverty of Conceptual Learning
Scripture Teaches in Parables
Learning and Practice
Teacher and Disciple
New Wine and Old Wineskins

CHAPTER 16: Worship
Prayer
The Name of God
Meditation
Ritual
Beyond Ritual

CHAPTER 17: Offering and Sacrifice
Offering
Donations
Self-Sacrifice
Persecution and Martyrdom

CHAPTER 18: Self-Denial and Renunciation
Self-denial and No-self
Repentance, Confession, and Restitution
Humility
Restraint and Moderation
Control Anger
Subdue Desires and Passions
Detachment from the Senses
Renunciation of Wealth
Asceticism and Monasticism
Separation from Family
Separation from the World

CHAPTER 19: Live for Others
Loving-kindness
Serving Others
Sacrificial Love
Giving and Receiving
Charity and Hospitality
Forgiveness and Reconciliation
Judge Not
Love Your Enemy
Turn the Other Cheek
Good Deeds
Labor and Industry
Honesty and Expediency
Witness

PART FIVE:
Providence, Society, and the Kingdom of Heaven

CHAPTER 20: Good Government and the Welfare of Society
The Pillars of Society
The Prophet and Reformer
War Against Evil
Respect for Legitimate Governments
Government by Divine Law
Consideration for the People
Leadership by Example and Honest Government
Judgments and Punishments
Providence and the Mandate of Heaven

CHAPTER 21: Eschatology and Messianic Hope
Tribulation
The Last Judgment
The Messiah
The Kingdom of Heaven

Interspirit Network for global illumination
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CHAPTER 5, THE PURPOSE OF LIFE IN THE NATURAL WORLD
THE LORD OF SPIRITS

The natural world also includes the spiritual realm. Often enough, benevolent spiritual beings, angels, and devas are the objects of worship and supplication; see Spiritual Benefactors, pp. 366-75. Yet with deeper religious insight, it has been revealed that the human being is, in reality, lord of spirits. Human beings who have received salvation, who are enlightened, or who have achieved the highest goal of life, easily outshine the angels in glory and surpass them in wisdom. Saints and sages, and even ordinary believers who have strong faith, can command the heavenly hosts to assist them in a righteous cause. They can also rebuke and cast out evil spirits in the name of God. Furthermore, according to the doctrine of reincarnation, even unreconstructed human beings have more opportunity for spiritual advancement than do angels. Only when incarnated as human beings may souls have an opportunity progress to the point of their final liberation.


Do you not know that we are to judge angels? How much more, matters pertaining to this life!

1. Christianity. Bible, 1 Corinthians 6.3


When a man walks on the highway, a company of angels goes before him, proclaiming, "Make way for the Image of the Holy One!"

2. Judaism. Midrash, Psalm 17.8


For a person in concord with Unity, everything prospers; to one who has no personal interest, even the spirits are in obeisance.

3. Taoism. Chuang Tzu 12


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1 Corinthians 6.3: This refers not to humans generally, but only to saved Christians. Cf. Hebrews 1.14, p. 368; Qur'an 14.22, p. 443. Chuang Tzu 12: Cf. Chuang Tzu 13, p. 311.
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The wise ones who are intent on meditation, who delight in the peace of renunciation, such mindful, perfect Buddhas even the gods hold most dear.

4. Buddhism. Dhammapada 181


Behold, your Lord said to the angels, "I will create a vicegerent on earth." They said, "Wilt Thou place therein one who will make mischief therein and shed blood?--while we do celebrate Thy praises and glorify Thy holy name?" He said, "I know what you know not."

And He taught Adam the names of all things; then He placed them before the angels, and said, "Tell Me the nature of these, if you are right."

They said, "Glory to Thee! of knowledge we have none, save what Thou hast taught us: in truth it is Thou who art perfect in knowledge and wisdom."

He said, "O Adam, tell them their natures." When he had told them, God said, "Did I not tell you that I know the secrets of heaven and earth, and I know what you reveal, and what you conceal."

5. Islam. Qur'an 2.30-33


God created all things with forms, but the invisible God does not have any form.... However, without form, God could not have dominion over the world of form. Therefore, in the created world of material things, God created man, who [was to be given divine] personality and spirit, to be the master. God must have dominion not only over all earthly things, but also over the infinite spiritual world. Archangels and all other spiritual beings are invisible substantial beings [having form]. A certain central form is also necessary in order to have dominion over the invisible substantial world. Then where was that form available? It was only through Adam that God could have such a form. Accordingly, through Adam's form, God planned to have dominion over both the spiritual world and the physical world, with Adam as the center. That was the purpose of creation. God had to have a substantial relationship with the substantial being, Adam, in order to have dominion over all things.

6. Unification Church. Sun Myung Moon, 10-13-70


When Moses ascended on high, the ministering angels spoke before the Holy One, blessed be He, "Sovereign of the Universe! What business has one born of woman among us?" "He has come to receive the Torah," He answered them. They replied, "That secret treasure, which has been hidden by You for nine hundred and seventy-four generations before the world was created, You desire to give to flesh and blood! 'What is man, that Thou art mindful of him, And the son of man, that thou visitest him? O Lord our God, How excellent is thy name in all the earth! Who hast set thy glory [the Torah] upon the heavens!'" (Psalm 8.5, 2).

"Reply to them," said the Holy One to Moses....

Moses then spoke before Him, "Sovereign of the Universe! The Torah which You give me, what is written in it?" "I am the Lord your God, which brought you out of the Land of Egypt" (Exodus 20.2). He said to the angels, "Did you go down to Egypt; were you enslaved to Pharaoh; why then should the Torah be yours? Again, what is written in it? 'You shall have no other gods' (Exodus 20.3); do you dwell among peoples that engage in idol worship? Again, what is written in it? 'Remember the Sabbath day, to keep it holy' (Exodus 20.8); do you perform work, that you need to rest?... Again, what is written in it? 'You shall not murder. You shall not commit adultery. You shall not steal' (Exodus 20.13-15); is there any jealousy among you; is the evil Tempter among you?" Straightaway the angels conceded to the Holy One, blessed be He, for it is said, "O Lord our Lord, How excellent is Thy name in all the earth," whereas "Who hast set Thy glory upon the heavens" is not written (Psalm 8.10).

7. Judaism. Talmud, Shabbat 88b-89a


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Dhammapada 181: Cf. Anguttara Nikaya i.279, p. 355; Digha Nikaya xi.67-83, pp. 378f. For a Jain expression of this idea, see Upadesamala 448-49, p. 551. Qur'an 2.30-33: Cf. Qur'an 17.61-64, p. 440; Genesis 2.15-3.24, pp. 424ff.; Brihadaranyaka Upanishad 1.4.10, p. 405. Sun Myung Moon, 10-13-70: Cf. Sun Myung Moon, 9-30-79, p. 307. This original blessing of dominion, and God's purpose in creating men to dwell on earth, was spoiled by the Fall. Fallen mankind has come under the false dominion of the archangel Satan. And God does not dwell in the personality of fallen man. Cf. 10-20-73, p. 467; Divine Principle I.1.2.3.4, p. 253. Shabbat 88b-89a: This argument between God and the angels, with Moses acting as God's spokesman, is a midrash on Psalm 8 (p. 310), which proclaims the dominion of humankind. The angels quote verse 2 of the psalm to argue that God's glory belongs in the heavens, but after Moses' arguments, they concede that the psalm concludes in verse 10 with God's name found only in the earth. The point seems to be responsibility, which humans alone possess. Cf. Qur'an 33.72, p. 311.
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Thus I have heard, on a certain occasion the Exalted One was staying near Uruvela, on the bank of the river Neranjara, at the root of the mucalinda tree, having just won the highest wisdom. Now on that occasion the Exalted One was seated for seven days in one posture and experienced the bliss of release. Then arose a great storm of rain out of due season, and for seven days there was rainy weather, cold winds, and overcast skies. So Mucalinda, King of the snakes, coming forth from his haunt, encircled the body of the Exalted One seven times with his coils and stood rearing his great hood above the Exalted One's head, thinking, "Let not heat or cold or the touch of flies, mosquitoes, wind, or creeping things annoy the Exalted One."

Now after the lapse of those seven days the Exalted One roused himself from that concentration of mind. Then Mucalinda, King of the snakes, seeing that the sky was clear and free of clouds, unwrapped his folds from the Exalted One's body, and, withdrawing his own form and creating the form of a youth, stood before the Exalted One, holding up his clasped hands and doing reverence to him.

8. Buddhism. Udana 10, Mucalinda


Behold, I have given you authority to tread upon serpents and scorpions, and over all the power of the enemy; and nothing shall hurt you. Nevertheless, do not rejoice in this, that the spirits are subject to you; but rejoice that your names are written in heaven.

9. Christianity. Bible, Luke 10.19-20


The Kesin (long-haired sage) bears fire, he bears water,
the Kesin upholds earth and heaven,
the Kesin sees all visions of luster,
the Kesin is called the Light.

Munis with the wind for their girdle
wear the soiled yellow robe;
they go along the course of the wind
where the gods have gone before.

"In the ecstasy of Munihood
we have ascended on the wind,
and only these bodies of ours
are what you mortals ever see."

The Muni flies through mid-air
while he looks at varied forms,
and he is of every deva
a comrade in doing good.

10. Hinduism. Rig Veda 10.136.1-4


- - - - - - - - - - - -
Udana 10: Mucalinda is not a demon, but a heavenly serpent who represents good spiritual forces. His homage to the Buddha expresses the Buddha's lordship over the angelic world. The scene is well-known in Buddhist iconography. Compare Srimad Bhagavatam 10.16, pp. 626f. Luke 10.19-20: Cf. Psalm 91.11-13, pp. 561f.
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Blessed is human birth; even the dwellers in heaven desire this birth: for true wisdom and pure love may be attained only by man.

11. Hinduism. Srimad Bhagavatam 11.13


The universe is peopled by manifold creatures who are, in this round of rebirth, born in different families and castes for having done various actions.

Sometimes they go to the world of the gods, sometimes to the hells, sometimes they become demons in accordance with their actions. Sometimes they become soldiers, or outcastes and untouchables, or worms or moths....

Thus, living beings of sinful actions, who are born again and again in ever-recurring births, are not disgusted with the round of rebirth, but they are like warriors, never tired of the battle of life. Bewildered through the influence of their actions, distressed and suffering pains, they undergo misery in non-human births.

But by the cessation of karma, perchance, living beings will reach in due time a pure state and be born as men.

12. Jainism. Uttaradhyayana Sutra 3.1-7