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CONTENTS | INVOCATION | INTRODUCTION | PROLOGUE | 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | 6 | 7 | 8 | 9 | 10 | 11 | 12 | 13 | 14 | 15 | 16 | 17 | 18 | 19 | 20 | 21
WS FORUM

INVOCATION

Synopsis
Title Page
This Archive
Advisors and Contributors
Foreword by Ninian Smart
How to obtain a printed (hardbound/paperback) version

PROLOGUE:
MANY PATHS TO ONE GOAL

The Truth in Many Paths
Tolerance and Respect for All Believers

INTRODUCTION
The Purpose of World Scripture
The Organization of World Scripture
The World's Religions and Their Scriptures
Acknowledgements
Notes

ESSAY:
World Scripture and Education for Peace

PART ONE:
Ultimate Reality and the Purpose of Human Existence

CHAPTER 1: Ultimate Reality
Traces of God's Existence
The One
Formless, Emptiness, Mystery
Transcendent, All-Pervasive Reality
Sovereign and Omnipotent
Omniscient
Immanent and Near at Hand
Eternal -- in a World of Transience
The Creator
Goodness and Love
Divine Father and Mother

CHAPTER 2: Divine Law, Truth, and Cosmic Principle
Eternal Truth
Moral Law
The Decalogue
The Golden Rule
Polarity, Relationality, and Interdependence
Cosmic Justice

CHAPTER 3: The Purpose of Life for the Individual
Joy and Happiness
For God's Good Pleasure
Image of God and Temple of God
Inborn Goodness and Conscience
Original Mind, No Mind
Perfection
True Love

CHAPTER 4: The Purpose of Life in the Family and in Society
The Family
Parents and Children
Husband and Wife
Friendship
Unity and Community
Equality
The People of God
The Ideal Society

CHAPTER 5: The Purpose of Life in the Natural World
The Sanctity of Nature
Reverence for Life
The Microcosm
Dominion
The Lord of Spirits
Creation Rejoices

CHAPTER 6: Life Beyond Death and the Spiritual World
The Spiritual World: Mystery, Multiplicity, Analogy, Harmony
The Immortal Soul
Prepare Now for Eternity
Passage Beyond
Heaven
Hell
Spiritual Benefactors
Spiritual Error and the Occult

PART TWO:
Evil, Sin, and the Human Fall

CHAPTER 7: The Human Condition
Ill
The War Within
Ignorance
Idolatry
Pride and Egotism
Selfish Desire, Lust, and Greed

CHAPTER 8: Fall and Deviation
The Human Fall
Demonic Powers
Heresy
Degraded Human Nature
God's Grief

CHAPTER 9: The Major Sins
Good and Evil
Adultery
Murder
Theft
Lying and Deceit
Hypocrisy
Slander, Gossip and Foul Speech
Addiction

PART THREE:
Salvation and the Savior

CHAPTER 10: Salvation-Liberation-Enlightenment
Grace
Universal Salvation
Atonement and Forgiveness of Sins
Healing
Liberation
Enlightenment
Crossing the Waters
Reversal and Restoration
Peace
Help and Deliverance
The Refining Fire
Born Anew
Eternal Life
The Unitive State

CHAPTER 11: The Founder
Call and Awakening
Rejected by the World
The Victor
He Who Subjugates Satan
The Revealer of Truth
The Man for Others
The Living Presence
The Person and Character of the Founder: Divine Person
Human Person
The Succession of Founders and Messengers

PART FOUR:
The Religious Life

CHAPTER 12: Responsibility and Predestination
Decision
Individual Responsibility
Synergy
Predestination
Karma and Inherited Sin
Duty

CHAPTER 13: Self-cultivation and Spiritual Growth
Spiritual Growth
Cultivate the Good
Sincerity
Purity
Self-Control
Preparing the Start
Vigilance
Perseverance and Patience

CHAPTER 14: Faith
Faith
Devotion and Praise
Fear, Submission, and Obedience
Anxiety
Gratitude
Argument with God

CHAPTER 15: Wisdom
The Search for Knowledge
Scripture and Tradition
Poverty of Conceptual Learning
Scripture Teaches in Parables
Learning and Practice
Teacher and Disciple
New Wine and Old Wineskins

CHAPTER 16: Worship
Prayer
The Name of God
Meditation
Ritual
Beyond Ritual

CHAPTER 17: Offering and Sacrifice
Offering
Donations
Self-Sacrifice
Persecution and Martyrdom

CHAPTER 18: Self-Denial and Renunciation
Self-denial and No-self
Repentance, Confession, and Restitution
Humility
Restraint and Moderation
Control Anger
Subdue Desires and Passions
Detachment from the Senses
Renunciation of Wealth
Asceticism and Monasticism
Separation from Family
Separation from the World

CHAPTER 19: Live for Others
Loving-kindness
Serving Others
Sacrificial Love
Giving and Receiving
Charity and Hospitality
Forgiveness and Reconciliation
Judge Not
Love Your Enemy
Turn the Other Cheek
Good Deeds
Labor and Industry
Honesty and Expediency
Witness

PART FIVE:
Providence, Society, and the Kingdom of Heaven

CHAPTER 20: Good Government and the Welfare of Society
The Pillars of Society
The Prophet and Reformer
War Against Evil
Respect for Legitimate Governments
Government by Divine Law
Consideration for the People
Leadership by Example and Honest Government
Judgments and Punishments
Providence and the Mandate of Heaven

CHAPTER 21: Eschatology and Messianic Hope
Tribulation
The Last Judgment
The Messiah
The Kingdom of Heaven

Interspirit Network for global illumination
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CHAPTER 10, SALVATION - LIBERATION - ENLIGHTNMENT
ENLIGHTENMENT

       Enlightenment means dispelling the darkness of ignorance.
Enlightenment is the primary term used to describe the experience of
salvation in Hinduism and Buddhism, yet the experience of enlightenment is
common to most religions. According to the manner in which Reality is
perceived in the different traditions, enlightenment may be either the
intuitive grasping of inner wisdom, illumination by the truth of the Word,
or direct apprehension of transcendent Reality.  The true self, formerly
obscured by false habits of thinking and vain desires, is suddenly
revealed.  The inner eye, which was blinded by defilements of worldly
living, opens to a vision of the true Reality.  From that moment life can
never be the same, as the enlightened person begins to live by the
knowledge he has acquired.

       The first group of passages compare God or God's word to a light
that shines into the soul.  Second are passages which describe
enlightenment as inner knowledge, opening the inner eye or the 'eye of the
heart.'  It is recognizing one's Original Mind, pp. 217-23.  Third, we
have passages on enlightenment as knowing God, the eternal source of
truth.  The concluding passage describes one experience of enlightenment:
a sudden apprehension of a new gestalt, a quantum leap in thinking, a
powerful conversion.


Your word is a lamp to my feet and a light to my path.

             Judaism and Christianity.  Bible, Psalm 119.105


The truth has come, and falsehood has vanished away.  Surely falsehood is
ever certain to vanish. 

                           Islam.  Qur'an 17.85


- - - - - - - - - - - -
Qur'an 17.85.  Cf. Mundaka Upanishad 3.1.6, p. 630; Qur'an 39.23, p. 159.
- - - - - - - - - - - -

Jesus spoke to them, saying "I am the light of the world; he who follows
me will not walk in darkness, but will have the light of life."

                     Christianity.  Bible, John 8.12


Those who believe will stand alongside [the Prophet], their light
streaming on ahead of them and to their right.  They will say, "Our Lord,
perfect our light for us, and forgive us!"

                           Islam.  Qur'an 66.8


Him the sun does not illumine, nor the moon, nor the stars, nor the
lightning--nor, verily, fires kindled upon the earth.  He is the one light
that gives light to all.  He shines; everything shines.

        Hinduism.  Katha Upanishad 5.15; Mundaka Upanishad 2.2.10;
                        Svetavatara Upanishad 6.14


It is wonderful, Lord!  It is wonderful, Lord!  It is as if, Lord, one
might set upright that which had been upturned, or might reveal what was
hidden, or might point out the path to one who had gone astray, or might
bring an oil lamp into the darkness so that those with eyes might see
material shapes.

                           Buddhism.  Udana 49


The holy Preceptor by the Word lighted a lamp;
Thereby was shattered darkness of the temple of the self,
And the unique chamber of jewels thrown open.
Wonderstruck were we in extreme on beholding it--
Its greatness beyond expression.

                Sikhism.  Adi Granth, Bilaval, M.5, p. 821

Your eye is the lamp of your body; when your eye is sound, your whole body
is full of light; but when it is not sound, your body is full of darkness.
Therefore be careful lest the light in you be darkness.  If then your
whole body is full of light, having no part dark, it will be wholly
bright, as when a lamp with its rays gives you light.

                       Christianity.  Luke 11.34-36


The Atman is the light:
The light is covered by darkness:
This darkness is delusion:
That is why we dream.
When the light of Atman
Drives out our darkness
That light shines forth from us,


- - - - - - - - - - - -
Qur'an 66.8: Cf. Qur'an 33.45-46, p. 633; Hadith of Muslim, p. 87.  Udana
49: For a vivid pictorial representation of the Buddha's enlightening
wisdom, see Garland Sutra 2, p. 99.  Luke 11.34-36: Cf. Forty Hadith of
an-Nawawi 6, p. 218; Qur'an 22.46, p. 400; Bhagavad Gita 15.9-11, p. 219.
- - - - - - - - - - - -


A sun in splendor,
The revealed Brahman.

                     Hinduism.  Bhagavad Gita 5.15-16


God is the Light of the heavens and the earth.
The parable of His Light
is as if there were a Niche,
and within it a Lamp;
the Lamp enclosed in Glass:
The Glass as it were a brilliant star:
Lit from a blessed Tree,
an olive neither of the East nor of the West,
Whose oil is well-nigh luminous,
though fire scarce touched it.
Light upon Light!
God guides whom He will to His Light:
God sets forth parables for men, and God knows all things.

                           Islam.  Qur'an 24.35


Since all Dharmas are immanent in our mind there is no reason why we
should not realize intuitively the real nature of Suchness.  The
Bodhisattva Sila Sutra says, "Our Essence of Mind is intrinsically pure,
and if we knew our mind and realized what our nature is, all of us would
attain Buddhahood."

                      Buddhism.  Sutra of Hui Neng 2


I am blind and do not see the things of this world; but when the light
comes from above, it enlightens my heart and I can see, for the Eye of my
heart sees everything; and through this vision I can help my people.  The
heart is a sanctuary at the center of which there is a little space,
wherein the Great Spirit dwells, and this is the Eye.  This is the Eye of
the Great Spirit by which He sees all things, and through which we see
Him.  If the heart is not pure, the Great Spirit cannot be seen.

          Native American Religions.  Black Elk, Sioux Tradition


The Self within the heart is like a boundary which divides the world from
That.  Day and night cross not that boundary, nor old age, nor death;
neither grief nor pleasure, neither good nor evil deeds.  All evil shuns
That.  For That is free from impurity: by impurity can it never be
touched.

Wherefore he who has crossed that boundary, and has realized the Self, if
he is blind, ceases to be blind; if he is wounded, ceases to be wounded;
if he is afflicted, ceases to be afflicted.  When that boundary is
crossed, night becomes day; for the world of Brahman is light itself.

                   Hinduism.  Chandogya Upanishad 4.1-2


- - - - - - - - - - - -
Bhagavad Gita 5.15-16: Cf. Svetasvatara Upanishad 2.14, p. 843.  Qur'an
24.35: See p. 116n.  Sutra of Hui Neng 2: Cf. Sutra of Hui Neng 3, p. 218;
Seng Ts'an, pp. 221f.  Meditation on Buddha Amitayus 17, p. 646.  Black
Elk: Cf. Forty Hadith of an-Nawawi 6, p. 218; Bhagavad Gita 5.9-11, p.
219.
- - - - - - - - - - - -


It is as if some man goes into an intimate friend's house, gets drunk, and
falls asleep.  Meanwhile his friend, having to go forth on official duty,
ties a priceless jewel within the man's garment as a present, and then
departs. The man, being asleep, knows nothing of this.  On arising he
travels onwards till he reaches some other country where, striving for
food and clothing, he labors diligently, undergoes exceeding great
hardship, and is content even if he can obtain but a little.  Later, his
friend happens to meet him and speaks thus--"Tut! Sir! How is it you have
come down to this, merely for the sake of food and clothing?  Wishing you
to be in comfort and able to satisfy your five senses, I, formerly in such
a year and month and on such a day, tied a price- less jewel within your
garment.  Now as of old it is present there, yet you in ignorance are
slaving and worrying to keep yourself alive.  How very stupid! Go you now
and exchange that jewel for what you need, and for ever hereafter as you
will, free from poverty and shortage."

                         Buddhism.  Lotus Sutra 8


       The enlightenment consists of a mysterious light which the shaman
suddenly feels in his body, inside his head, within the brain, an
inexplicable searchlight, a luminous fire... for he can now, even with
closed eyes, see through darkness and perceive things and coming events
which are hidden from others: thus they look into the future and into the
secrets of others.

       The candidate obtains this mystical light after long hours of
waiting, sitting on a bench in his hut and invoking the spirits.  When he
experiences it for the first time, it is as if the house in which he is
suddenly rises, he sees far ahead of him, through mountains, exactly as if
the earth were one great plain, and his eyes could reach to the end of the
earth.  Nothing is hidden from him any longer; not only can he see things
far, far away, but he can also discover souls, stolen souls, which are
either kept concealed in far, strange lands or have been taken up or down
to the Land of the Dead.

       Native American Religions  Iglulik Eskimo Shaman Initiation


Brahman is all in all.  He is action, knowledge, goodness supreme.  To
know him, hidden in the lotus of the heart, is to untie the knot of
ignorance.

                   Hinduism.  Mundaka Upanishad 2.1.10


Perfect knowledge is attained on the destruction of deluding karmas, of
karmas which obscure knowledge and perception, and of karmas which
obstruct [faith]. With the absence of the cause of bondage, the
annihilation of all karmas is liberation.

                     Jainism.  Tattvarthasutra 10.1-2


- - - - - - - - - - - -
Lotus Sutra 8: For variations of this parable, see Mahaparinirvana Sutra
214-15, p. 219; Chandogya Upanishad 8.3.2, p. 219  Iglulik Eskimo Shaman
Initiation: Cf. Yanomami Shaman's Instruction, pp. 528, 376.  Mundaka
Upanishad 2.1.10: Cf. Bhagavad Gita 15.9-11, p. 219; Kena Upanishad 1.1-2,
p. 117; Svetasvatara Upanishad 1.11-12, p. 585; Isha Upanishad 6-7, p.
588.
- - - - - - - - - - - -


To know the eternal is called enlightenment
Not to know the eternal is to act blindly, to result in disaster.
He who knows the eternal is all-embracing.
Being all-embracing, he is impartial.
Being impartial, he is kingly [universal].
Being kingly, he is one with Nature.
Being one with nature, he is in accord with Tao.
Being in accord with Tao, he is everlasting,
And is free from danger throughout his lifetime.

                         Taoism.  Tao Te Ching 16


For support, O Far-sighted One,
       reveal unto me that which is unique:
That of Thy Kingdom, O Lord,
       which are blessings of Good Thought,
Forth, O Beneficent Right-mindedness,
       dost Thou reveal Religious commands!

                   Zoroastrianism.  Avesta, Yasna 33.13


Yet among the mature we do impart wisdom, although it is not a wisdom of
this age or of the rulers of this age, who are doomed to pass away.  But
we impart a secret and hidden wisdom of God, which God decreed before the
ages for our glorification.  None of the rulers of this age understood
this; for if they had, they would not have crucified the Lord of glory.
But, as it is written,

                  What no eye has seen, nor ear heard,
                  nor the heart of man conceived,
                  what God has prepared for those who love Him,

God has revealed to us through the Spirit.  For the Spirit searches every-
thing, even the depths of God.

                Christianity.  Bible, 1 Corinthians 2.6-10


The Sixth Patriarch was pursued by the monk Myo as far as Taiyu Mountain.
The patriarch, seeing Myo coming, laid the Robe and bowl [of office] on a
rock and said, "This robe represents the faith; it should not be fought
over.  If you want to take it away, take it now."  Myo tried to move it,
but it was as heavy as a mountain and would not budge.  Faltering and
trembling, he cried out, "I came for the Dharma, not for the robe.  I beg
you, please give me your instruction." The patriarch said, "Think neither
good nor evil.  At this very moment, what is the original self of the monk
Myo?"  At these words, Myo was directly illuminated.  His whole body was
covered with sweat.  He wept and bowed, saying, "Besides the secret words
and secret meaning you have just now revealed to me, is there anything
else, deeper still?"  The patriarch said, "What I have told you is no
secret at all.  When you look into your own true self, whatever is deeper
is found right there."

                          Buddhism.  Mumonkan 23


- - - - - - - - - - - -
Tao Te Ching 16: The phrase 'To know the eternal is enlightenment' is
repeated in several passages of the Tao Te Ching; see Tao Te Ching 16, p.
840; 55, p. 231.  1 Corinthians 2.6-10: Cf. 1 Corinthians  1.20-28, p.
798; 2.12-16, p. 805. Mumonkan 23: This incident, when Hui Neng the Sixth
Patriarch was fleeing from the followers of his rival Shen Hsiu, is also
recounted in the Sutra of Hui Neng.  In Zen, Enlightenment frequently
occurs in such a manner: a sudden realization grows from an experience of
crisis and extreme desperation.  When it comes, one no longer depends on
cognition or knowledge or secret lore.  The authentic self shines forth;
cf. Mumonkan 1, p. 841; Seng Ts'an, pp. 221f.
- - - - - - - - - - - -