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CONTENTS | INVOCATION | INTRODUCTION | PROLOGUE | 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | 6 | 7 | 8 | 9 | 10 | 11 | 12 | 13 | 14 | 15 | 16 | 17 | 18 | 19 | 20 | 21
WS FORUM

INVOCATION

Synopsis
Title Page
This Archive
Advisors and Contributors
Foreword by Ninian Smart
How to obtain a printed (hardbound/paperback) version

PROLOGUE:
MANY PATHS TO ONE GOAL

The Truth in Many Paths
Tolerance and Respect for All Believers

INTRODUCTION
The Purpose of World Scripture
The Organization of World Scripture
The World's Religions and Their Scriptures
Acknowledgements
Notes

ESSAY:
World Scripture and Education for Peace

PART ONE:
Ultimate Reality and the Purpose of Human Existence

CHAPTER 1: Ultimate Reality
Traces of God's Existence
The One
Formless, Emptiness, Mystery
Transcendent, All-Pervasive Reality
Sovereign and Omnipotent
Omniscient
Immanent and Near at Hand
Eternal -- in a World of Transience
The Creator
Goodness and Love
Divine Father and Mother

CHAPTER 2: Divine Law, Truth, and Cosmic Principle
Eternal Truth
Moral Law
The Decalogue
The Golden Rule
Polarity, Relationality, and Interdependence
Cosmic Justice

CHAPTER 3: The Purpose of Life for the Individual
Joy and Happiness
For God's Good Pleasure
Image of God and Temple of God
Inborn Goodness and Conscience
Original Mind, No Mind
Perfection
True Love

CHAPTER 4: The Purpose of Life in the Family and in Society
The Family
Parents and Children
Husband and Wife
Friendship
Unity and Community
Equality
The People of God
The Ideal Society

CHAPTER 5: The Purpose of Life in the Natural World
The Sanctity of Nature
Reverence for Life
The Microcosm
Dominion
The Lord of Spirits
Creation Rejoices

CHAPTER 6: Life Beyond Death and the Spiritual World
The Spiritual World: Mystery, Multiplicity, Analogy, Harmony
The Immortal Soul
Prepare Now for Eternity
Passage Beyond
Heaven
Hell
Spiritual Benefactors
Spiritual Error and the Occult

PART TWO:
Evil, Sin, and the Human Fall

CHAPTER 7: The Human Condition
Ill
The War Within
Ignorance
Idolatry
Pride and Egotism
Selfish Desire, Lust, and Greed

CHAPTER 8: Fall and Deviation
The Human Fall
Demonic Powers
Heresy
Degraded Human Nature
God's Grief

CHAPTER 9: The Major Sins
Good and Evil
Adultery
Murder
Theft
Lying and Deceit
Hypocrisy
Slander, Gossip and Foul Speech
Addiction

PART THREE:
Salvation and the Savior

CHAPTER 10: Salvation-Liberation-Enlightenment
Grace
Universal Salvation
Atonement and Forgiveness of Sins
Healing
Liberation
Enlightenment
Crossing the Waters
Reversal and Restoration
Peace
Help and Deliverance
The Refining Fire
Born Anew
Eternal Life
The Unitive State

CHAPTER 11: The Founder
Call and Awakening
Rejected by the World
The Victor
He Who Subjugates Satan
The Revealer of Truth
The Man for Others
The Living Presence
The Person and Character of the Founder: Divine Person
Human Person
The Succession of Founders and Messengers

PART FOUR:
The Religious Life

CHAPTER 12: Responsibility and Predestination
Decision
Individual Responsibility
Synergy
Predestination
Karma and Inherited Sin
Duty

CHAPTER 13: Self-cultivation and Spiritual Growth
Spiritual Growth
Cultivate the Good
Sincerity
Purity
Self-Control
Preparing the Start
Vigilance
Perseverance and Patience

CHAPTER 14: Faith
Faith
Devotion and Praise
Fear, Submission, and Obedience
Anxiety
Gratitude
Argument with God

CHAPTER 15: Wisdom
The Search for Knowledge
Scripture and Tradition
Poverty of Conceptual Learning
Scripture Teaches in Parables
Learning and Practice
Teacher and Disciple
New Wine and Old Wineskins

CHAPTER 16: Worship
Prayer
The Name of God
Meditation
Ritual
Beyond Ritual

CHAPTER 17: Offering and Sacrifice
Offering
Donations
Self-Sacrifice
Persecution and Martyrdom

CHAPTER 18: Self-Denial and Renunciation
Self-denial and No-self
Repentance, Confession, and Restitution
Humility
Restraint and Moderation
Control Anger
Subdue Desires and Passions
Detachment from the Senses
Renunciation of Wealth
Asceticism and Monasticism
Separation from Family
Separation from the World

CHAPTER 19: Live for Others
Loving-kindness
Serving Others
Sacrificial Love
Giving and Receiving
Charity and Hospitality
Forgiveness and Reconciliation
Judge Not
Love Your Enemy
Turn the Other Cheek
Good Deeds
Labor and Industry
Honesty and Expediency
Witness

PART FIVE:
Providence, Society, and the Kingdom of Heaven

CHAPTER 20: Good Government and the Welfare of Society
The Pillars of Society
The Prophet and Reformer
War Against Evil
Respect for Legitimate Governments
Government by Divine Law
Consideration for the People
Leadership by Example and Honest Government
Judgments and Punishments
Providence and the Mandate of Heaven

CHAPTER 21: Eschatology and Messianic Hope
Tribulation
The Last Judgment
The Messiah
The Kingdom of Heaven

Interspirit Network for global illumination
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CHAPTER 18, OFFERING AND SACRIFICE
RENUNCIATION OF WEALTH

       All scriptures regard attachment to wealth and possessions as a
fetter to the religious life.  Attachment promotes greed and avarice,
which draw the mind downward into the mire of self-centered desire.
Therefore the path to Transcendence requires renunciation of wealth and
the desire for its benefits.

       Renunciation of wealth is of two kinds.  One is total renunciation:
the vow of poverty incumbent upon the monk.  The other is the more moder-
ate rejection of acquisitiveness: wealth should be regarded as a secondary
end, never overshadowing the purposes of God or the goal of spiritual
advancement.  A person's work may result in gain, but that gain should
never be grasped at, nor even desired if it would conflict with the dem-
ands of righteousness and require the exploitation of others.  For more
texts on total renunciation, see the next section on asceticism.

       We may divide these passages into three groups.  Those in the first
group distinguish true religion from concern for wealth, the search for
God from the business of mammon.  A person must put God first; attachment
to riches is an obstacle to realizing the spiritual goal.  A second group
of texts recommends an attitude of non-possessiveness.  People should not
work with the expectation of reward, nor grasp after possessions.  The
Bhagavad Gita describes work done without attachment or desire for reward
as liberated and not productive of karma.  Taoist texts describe non-
action (wu-wei), which is devoid of self-interest, as the way to manage
everything.  Texts om the last group describe a hierarchy of values:
rightness and duty come above personal gain. As long as the former is up-
held, gain is permissible; but it is incorrect to seek gain at the expense
of rightness.


What avail riches for the practice of religion?

                   Jainism.  Uttaradhyayana Sutra 14.16


Man shall not live by bread alone, but by every word that proceeds from
the mouth of God.

                   Judaism and Christianity.  Deuteronomy 8.3, Matthew 4.4


Do not race after riches, do not risk your life for success, or you will
let slip the Heaven within you.

                   Taoism.  Chuang Tzu 29


Busy not yourself with this world, for with fire We test the gold, and
with gold We test Our servants.

                   Baha'i Faith.  Hidden Words of Baha'u'llah, Arabic 54


Anyone who is stingy, is stingy only with his own soul.  God is Wealthy
while you are poor.

                   Islam.  Qur'an 47.38


Woe is he... who has gathered riches and counted them over, thinking his
riches have made him immortal!

                   Islam.  Qur'an 104.1-3


No one can serve two masters; for either he will hate the one and love the
other, or he will be devoted to the one and despise the other.  You cannot
serve God and mammon.

                   Christianity.  Matthew 6.24


When they see merchandise or diversion they scatter off to it, and they
leave you standing.  Say, "What is with God is better than diversion and
merchandise.  God is the best of providers."

                   Islam.  Qur'an 62.11


Riches ruin the foolish, but not those in quest of the Beyond.  Through
craving for riches the ignorant man ruins himself as he does others.

                   Buddhism.  Dhammapada 355


- - - - - - - - - - - -
Chuang Tzu 29: Cf. Tao Te Ching 12, p. 934; John 2.13-16, p. 1055.  Qur'an
47.38: Cf. Qur'an 107.4-7, p. 491; Osashizu, p. 795.  Qur'an 104.1-3: Cf.
Qur'an 107.4-7, p. 491.  Matthew 6.24: Cf. 1 Timothy 6.10, p. 420; Matthew
16.26, p. 962.  Dhammapada 355: A man may have wealth as long as he does not
crave it but places it in service of the higher goal--cf. Holy Teaching of
Vimalakirti 2, p. 965.
- - - - - - - - - - - -


And he [Jesus] called to him the twelve, and began to send them out two by
two, and gave them authority over the unclean spirits.  He charged them to
take nothing for their journey except a staff; no bread, no bag, no money
in their belts; but to wear sandals and not put on two tunics.

                   Christianity.  Mark 6.7-9


This is the way of Torah: A morsel with salt shall you eat and water by
measure shall you drink; and you shall lie upon the earth, and you shall
live a life of hardship, and labor in the Torah.  If you do thus, happy
shall you be and it shall be well with you.

                   Judaism.  Mishnah, Abot 6.4


The Master said, "Incomparable was Hui!  A handful of rice to eat, a
gourdful of water to drink, living in a mean street--others would have
found it unendurably depressing, but to Hui's cheerfulness it made no dif-
ference at all.  Incomparable indeed was Hui!"

                   Confucianism.  Analects 6.9


Blessed is the straw hut where God's praises are chanted;
Worthless the white mansions where remembrance of God is not.
Poverty with the holy while contemplating God is bliss itself.
Burn that pride of high state that involves the self with Maya.
Grinding grain with rough clothing brings to the mind joy and contentment.
What worth kingship without peace of soul?

                   Sikhism.  Adi Granth, Suhi, M.5, p. 745


       Yajnavalkya [addressing his wife]: "Maitreyi, I am resolved to re-
nounce the world and begin the life of renunciation.  I wish therefore to
divide my property between you and my other wife, Katyayani."
       Maitreyi: "My Lord, if this whole earth belonged to me, with all
its wealth, should I through its possession attain immortality?"
       "No.  Your life would by like that of the rich.  None can possibly
hope to attain immortality through wealth."
       "Then what need have I of wealth?  Please, my lord, tell me what
you know about the way to immortality."

                   Hinduism.  Brihadaranyaka Upanishad 2.4.1-3


- - - - - - - - - - - -
Mark 6.7-9: Cf. Matthew 10.9-10, p. 821.  Analects 6.9: Hui Neng was
Confucius' favorite disciple; see Analects 9.10, p. 819; Shih Chi 47,
pp. 607f.  Brihadaranyaka Upanishad 2.4.1-3: Cf. Lotus Sutra 12, p. 818,
the story of a king who renounces his wealth to follow a mendicant teacher
and learn the truth.  The Sakyamuni's own life is, of course, the best
example of a rich man renouncing a kingdom and its riches for the sake of
a higher goal; see Buddhacarita of Ashvaghosha 3-5, pp. 597f.
- - - - - - - - - - - -


`Ali ibn Abu Talib said, "When we were sitting with God's Messenger in the
mosque, Mus`ab ibn. `Umair came to us wearing only a cloak of his patched
with fur, and when God's Messenger saw him he wept to think of his former
affluence and his condition at that time.  He then said, 'How will it be
with you when one of you goes out in the morning wearing a mantle and goes
out in the evening wearing another, when one dish is placed before him and
another removed, and you cover your houses as the Kaaba is covered?'  On
receiving the reply, 'Messenger of God, we shall then be better than we
are today, having leisure for worship and possessing all we require,' he
said, 'No, you are better today than you will be at that time.'"

                   Islam.  Hadith of Tirmidhi


Running after that cur, money,
I have forgotten you, O Lord.
What a shame! I have time only for making money, not for you.
How can a dog who loves rotten meat, relish the nectar?

                   Hinduism.  Basavanna, Vachana 313


Beautified for mankind is love of the joys [that come] from women and
offspring, and stored-up heaps of gold and silver, and horses branded, and
cattle and land.  That is comfort of the life of the world.  God!  With
Him is a more excellent abode.  Say, Shall I inform you of something
better than that?  For those who keep from evil, with their Lord are
Gardens underneath which rivers flow, and pure companions, and content-
ment from God.

                   Islam.  Qur'an 3.14-15


       Jesus said to [the rich young man], "If you would be perfect, go,
sell what you possess and give to the poor, and you will have treasure in
heaven; and come, follow me."  When the young man heard this he went away
sorrowful; for he had great possessions.

       And Jesus said to his disciples, "Truly, I say to you, it will by
hard for a rich man to enter the kingdom of Heaven.  Again I tell you, it
is easier for a camel to go through the eye of a needle than for a rich
man to enter the kingdom of God."

                   Christianity.  Matthew 19.21-24

And [Jesus] told them a parable, saying, "The land of a rich man brought
forth plentifully; and he thought to himself, 'What shall I do, for I have
nowhere to store my crops?'  And he said, 'I will do this: I will pull
down my barns, and build larger ones; and there I will store all my grain
and my goods.  And I will say to my soul, Soul, you have ample goods laid
up for many years; take your ease, eat, drink, be merry.'  But God will
say to him, 'Fool! This night your soul is required of you; and the things
you have prepared, whose will they be?'  So is he who lays up treasure for
himself, and is not rich toward God."

                   Christianity.  Luke 12.16-21


- - - - - - - - - - - -
Matthew 19.21-24: Cf. 1 Timothy 6.10, p. 420; Matthew 6.19-21, p. 337;
13.44-46, p. 675; John 2.13-16, p. 1055.  Luke 12.16-21: Cf. Matthew
6.19-21, p. 337.
- - - - - - - - - - - -


I see men of wealth in the world--
acquiring property, from delusion they give not away;
out of greed a hoard of wealth they make,
and hanker sorely after more sense pleasures....

Heirs carry off his wealth;
but the being goes on according to kamma.
Wealth does not follow him who is dying,
nor child or wife, nor wealth or kingdom.

Long life is not gained by wealth,
nor is old age banished by property.
 "For brief is this life," the wise say,
non-eternal, subject to change.

Rich and poor feel the touch [of death],
fool and wise are touched alike.
But the fool, as though struck down by folly, prostrate lies,
While the wise, touched by the touch, trembles not.

Wherefore better than wealth is wisdom
by which one here secures the Accomplishment.

                   Buddhism.  Majjhima Nikaya ii.72-73, Rattapala Sutta


The Great Man--his face and form blend with the Great Unity, the Great
Unity which is selfless.  Being selfless, how can he look upon possession
as possession?

                   Taoism.  Chuang Tzu 11


The impulse "I want" and the impulse "I'll have"--lose them!  That is
where most people get stuck; without those, you can use your eyes to guide
you through this suffering state.

                   Buddhism.  Sutta Nipata 706


On gaining the desired object, one should not feel elated.  On not receiv-
ing the desired object, one should not feel dejected.  In case of obtain-
ing anything in excess, one should not hoard it.  One should abstain from
acquisitiveness.  One who sees Reality should consume things in a manner
different from that of a layman.

                   Jainism.  Acarangasutra 2.114-19


- - - - - - - - - - - -
Majjhima Nikaya ii.72-73: Buddhism does not condemn the acquisition of wealth
in the life of a layman.  He may energetically acquire wealth as long as he
does not exploit others.  Attachment to wealth and miserliness are condemned.
Furthermore, far better than wealth is to realize enlightenment, arahantship,
'the Accomplishment.'
- - - - - - - - - - - -


The sage manages affairs without action (wu-wei),
Carries out the teaching without speech.
Ten thousand things arise and he does not initiate them,
They come to be and he claims no possession of them,
He works without holding on to,
Accomplishes without claiming merit.
Because he does not claim merit,
His merit does not go away.

                   Taoism.  Tao Te Ching 2

You have the right to work, but never to the fruit of work. You should
never engage in action for the sake of reward, nor should you long for
inaction.  Perform work in this world, Arjuna, as a man established within
himself--without selfish attachments, and alike in success and defeat.
For discipline is perfect evenness of mind.

Seek refuge in the attitude of detachment and you will amass the wealth of
spiritual awareness.  Those who are motivated only by desire for the
fruits of action are miserable, for they are constantly anxious about the
results of what they do.  When consciousness is unified, however, all vain
anxiety is left behind.  There is no cause for worry, whether things go
well or ill.

                   Hinduism.  Bhagavad Gita 2.47-50


The master said, "A superior man takes as much trouble to discover what is
right as lesser men take to discover what will pay."

                   Confucianism.  Analects 4.16


Be not like the servants who minister to their master upon condition of
receiving a reward; but be like servants who minister to their master
without the condition of receiving a reward; and let the fear of Heaven
be upon you.

                   Judaism.  Mishnah, Abot 1.3


       Virtue is the root; wealth is the result.
       If he makes the root his secondary object, and the result his
primary, he will only wrangle with his people, and teach them rapine.
       Hence, the accumulation of wealth is the way to scatter the people;
and the letting it be scattered among them is the way to collect the
people.

                   Confucianism.  Great Learning 10.7-9


Wealth and rank are what every man desires; but if they can only be re-
tained to the detriment of the Way he professes, he must relinquish them.
Poverty and obscurity are what every man detests; but if they can only be
avoided to the detriment of the way he professes, he must accept them.
The gentleman who ever parts company with goodness does not fulfill that
name.  Never for a moment does a gentleman quit the way of goodness.  He
is never so harried but that he cleaves to this; never so tottering but
that he cleaves to this.

                   Confucianism.  Analects 4.5


- - - - - - - - - - - -
Tao Te Ching 2: Cf. Tao Te Ching 64, p. 918; Chuang Tzu 6, p. 234.  Wu-wei
is the benevolent principle of Heaven; cf. Tao Te Ching 34, p. 141; 37,
p. 136.  Bhagavad Gita 2.47-50: Cf. Bhagavad Gita 4.19-21, p. 775.  Abot
1.3: Cf. Micah 3.5, p. 446; Slokas, Farid, p. 420.  Analects 4.5: Cf.
Mencius VI.A.10, pp. 755f.; Chuang Tzu 4, pp. 709f.
- - - - - - - - - - - -