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Negotiation is at the heart of co-creation. Some specific issue or concern is on the table, some tension or difference must be resolved to maintin a relationship. The parties mutually need a reoltuion to move forward. Alternatives are considered until someting mutually acceptable emergecnes and agreement is reached.
The Integral Perspective

Negotiation is a dialogue between two or more people or parties intended to reach a beneficial outcome over one or more issues where a conflict exists with respect to at least one of these issues. Negotiation is an interaction and process between entities who compromise to agree on matters of mutual interest, while optimizing their individual utilities. This beneficial outcome can be for all of the parties involved, or just for one or some of them. Negotiators need to understand the negotiation process and other negotiators to increase their chances to close deals, avoid conflicts, establishing relationship with other parties and gain profit.

It is aimed to resolve points of difference, to gain advantage for an individual or collective, or to craft outcomes to satisfy various interests. It is often conducted by putting forward a position and making concessions to achieve an agreement. The degree to which the negotiating parties trust each other to implement the negotiated solution is a major factor in determining whether negotiations are successful.

People negotiate daily, often without considering it a negotiation. Negotiation occurs in organizations, including businesses, non-profits, and within and between governments as well as in sales and legal proceedings, and in personal situations such as marriage, divorce, parenting, etc. Professional negotiators are often specialized, such as union negotiators, leverage buyout negotiators, peace negotiator, or hostage negotiators. They may also work under other titles, such as diplomats, legislators, or brokers. There is also negotiation conducted by algorithms or machines known as autonomous negotiation. For automation, the negotiation participants and process have to be modeled correctly.


Automated Negotiation

Automated negotiation is a form of interaction in systems that are composed of multiple autonomous agents, in which the aim is to reach agreements through an iterative process of making offers. Automated negotiation can be employed for many tasks human negotiators regularly engage in, such as bargaining and joint decision making. The main topics in automated negotiation revolve around the design of protocols and strategies.