Origin The Challenge to the Global Community of Religions
"In this new ecological age of developing global community and interfaith dialogue, the world religions face what is perhaps the greatest challenge that they have ever encountered. Each is inspired by a unique vision of the divine and has a distinct cultural identity. At the same time, each perceives the divine as the source of unity and peace. The challenge is to preserve their religious and cultural uniqueness without letting it operate as a cause of narrow and divisive sectarianism that contradicts the vision of unity and peace. It is a question of whether the healing light of religious vision will overcome the social and ideological issues that underline much of the conflict between religions." ~ Dr. Steven C. Rockefeller, Middlebury College, Spirit and Nature, p. 169
CONTENTS | INVOCATION | INTRODUCTION | PROLOGUE | 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | 6 | 7 | 8 | 9 | 10 | 11 | 12 | 13 | 14 | 15 | 16 | 17 | 18 | 19 | 20 | 21


Title Page
This Archive
Advisors and Contributors
Foreword by Ninian Smart
How to obtain a printed (hardbound/paperback) version


The Truth in Many Paths
Tolerance and Respect for All Believers

The Purpose of World Scripture
The Organization of World Scripture
The World's Religions and Their Scriptures

World Scripture and Education for Peace

Ultimate Reality and the Purpose of Human Existence

CHAPTER 1: Ultimate Reality
Traces of God's Existence
The One
Formless, Emptiness, Mystery
Transcendent, All-Pervasive Reality
Sovereign and Omnipotent
Immanent and Near at Hand
Eternal -- in a World of Transience
The Creator
Goodness and Love
Divine Father and Mother

CHAPTER 2: Divine Law, Truth, and Cosmic Principle
Eternal Truth
Moral Law
The Decalogue
The Golden Rule
Polarity, Relationality, and Interdependence
Cosmic Justice

CHAPTER 3: The Purpose of Life for the Individual
Joy and Happiness
For God's Good Pleasure
Image of God and Temple of God
Inborn Goodness and Conscience
Original Mind, No Mind
True Love

CHAPTER 4: The Purpose of Life in the Family and in Society
The Family
Parents and Children
Husband and Wife
Unity and Community
The People of God
The Ideal Society

CHAPTER 5: The Purpose of Life in the Natural World
The Sanctity of Nature
Reverence for Life
The Microcosm
The Lord of Spirits
Creation Rejoices

CHAPTER 6: Life Beyond Death and the Spiritual World
The Spiritual World: Mystery, Multiplicity, Analogy, Harmony
The Immortal Soul
Prepare Now for Eternity
Passage Beyond
Spiritual Benefactors
Spiritual Error and the Occult

Evil, Sin, and the Human Fall

CHAPTER 7: The Human Condition
The War Within
Pride and Egotism
Selfish Desire, Lust, and Greed

CHAPTER 8: Fall and Deviation
The Human Fall
Demonic Powers
Degraded Human Nature
God's Grief

CHAPTER 9: The Major Sins
Good and Evil
Lying and Deceit
Slander, Gossip and Foul Speech

Salvation and the Savior

CHAPTER 10: Salvation-Liberation-Enlightenment
Universal Salvation
Atonement and Forgiveness of Sins
Crossing the Waters
Reversal and Restoration
Help and Deliverance
The Refining Fire
Born Anew
Eternal Life
The Unitive State

CHAPTER 11: The Founder
Call and Awakening
Rejected by the World
The Victor
He Who Subjugates Satan
The Revealer of Truth
The Man for Others
The Living Presence
The Person and Character of the Founder: Divine Person
Human Person
The Succession of Founders and Messengers

The Religious Life

CHAPTER 12: Responsibility and Predestination
Individual Responsibility
Karma and Inherited Sin

CHAPTER 13: Self-cultivation and Spiritual Growth
Spiritual Growth
Cultivate the Good
Preparing the Start
Perseverance and Patience

CHAPTER 14: Faith
Devotion and Praise
Fear, Submission, and Obedience
Argument with God

CHAPTER 15: Wisdom
The Search for Knowledge
Scripture and Tradition
Poverty of Conceptual Learning
Scripture Teaches in Parables
Learning and Practice
Teacher and Disciple
New Wine and Old Wineskins

CHAPTER 16: Worship
The Name of God
Beyond Ritual

CHAPTER 17: Offering and Sacrifice
Persecution and Martyrdom

CHAPTER 18: Self-Denial and Renunciation
Self-denial and No-self
Repentance, Confession, and Restitution
Restraint and Moderation
Control Anger
Subdue Desires and Passions
Detachment from the Senses
Renunciation of Wealth
Asceticism and Monasticism
Separation from Family
Separation from the World

CHAPTER 19: Live for Others
Serving Others
Sacrificial Love
Giving and Receiving
Charity and Hospitality
Forgiveness and Reconciliation
Judge Not
Love Your Enemy
Turn the Other Cheek
Good Deeds
Labor and Industry
Honesty and Expediency

Providence, Society, and the Kingdom of Heaven

CHAPTER 20: Good Government and the Welfare of Society
The Pillars of Society
The Prophet and Reformer
War Against Evil
Respect for Legitimate Governments
Government by Divine Law
Consideration for the People
Leadership by Example and Honest Government
Judgments and Punishments
Providence and the Mandate of Heaven

CHAPTER 21: Eschatology and Messianic Hope
The Last Judgment
The Messiah
The Kingdom of Heaven

Interspirit Network for global illumination
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       The presence of suffering and hardship in life cannot always be
explained on the basis of divine justice.  Why, if God is just and
gracious, and the true teaching brings forth love and peace, do the
righteous seem to suffer about as much as the wicked?  The problem of
theodicy, particularly when it concerns the problem of the righteous
sufferer, has occupied the minds of some of the greatest religious
thinkers.  Passages relevant to the problem of theodicy are found
scattered throughout this anthology according to the various solutions
which are posited in scripture: e.g., the human condition is inevitably
Ill, pp. 379-85; people are deluded by Ignorance, pp. 395-402; infected by
Original Sin from a primordial Human Fall, pp. 422-34; fated to work out
accumulated Karma or Inherited Sin, pp. 694-702; or influenced by Demonic
Powers, pp. 435-44.  One may have an Argument with God, pp. 782-86 that
such suffering is unjust, or empathize with God's own Grief, pp. 457-62.

       Another way in which the suffering of the righteous is frequently
under- stood is as a means to spiritual advancement and hence a
manifestation of God's grace.  Suffering tries and tests people, purifies
their faith, corrects their flaws, and refines their character.  This
suffering is an expression of grace and love because once people have come
out of the refining fire and accepted correction, they will shine with a
tested and confirmed faith and a splendid character.  Especially those
whom God wishes to entrust with a special responsibility, or who are
desirous of reaching the highest goal, will be most severely tested and
most thoroughly refined.  The passages gathered below treat this gracious
side of suffering: the refining fire.

Welcome to Thy wrath and to Thy glow!
Our welcome be to Thy flame!
Let Thy missles burn our enemies,
Be our purifier, be gracious to us!

                       Hinduism.  Yajur Veda 36.20

Just as a great conflagration
Can burn up all things,
So does Buddha's field of blessings
Burn up all fabrication.

                       Buddhism.  Garland Sutra 10

As the heat of a fire reduces wood to ashes, the fire of knowledge burns
to ashes all karma.  Nothing in this world purifies like spiritual wisdom.

                      Hinduism.  Bhagavad Gita 4.37

Just as a fire quickly reduces decayed wood to ashes, so does an aspirant
who is totally absorbed in the inner self and completely unattached to all
external objects shake to the roots, attenuate, and wither away his

                Jainism.  Samantabadhra, Aptamimamsa 24-27

"From His right hand went forth a fiery law for them" (Deuteronomy 33.2).
The words of Torah are compared to fire, for both were given from heaven,
both are eternal.  If a man draws near the fire, he derives benefit; if he
keeps afar, he is frozen, so with the words of the Torah: if a man toils
in them, they are life to him; if he separates from him, they kill him.

                   Judaism.  Midrash, Sifre Deuteronomy

I will put this third into the fire,
       and refine them as one refines silver,
       and test them as gold is tested.

             Judaism and Christianity.  Bible, Zechariah 13.9

Ambrosia can be extracted even from poison; elegant speech even from a
child; good conduct even from an enemy, gold even from impurity.

                      Hinduism.  Laws of Manu 2.239

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Garland Sutra 10: Cf. Dhammapada 239, p. 713; Ramayana, Yuddha Kanda
118-20, pp. 783f. Zechariah 13.9: Cf. Hidden Words of Baha'u'llah, Arabic
54, p. 937.
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Make chastity your furnace, patience your smithy,
The Master's word your anvil, and true knowledge your hammer.
Make awe of God your bellows, and with it kindle the fire of austerity.
And in the crucible of love, melt the nectar Divine.
Only in such a mint, can man be cast into the Word.

                Sikhism.  Adi Granth, Japuji 38, M.1, p. 8

Devotion to God's Name is my lamp;
In this lamp is poured the oil of suffering.
The light of realization burns away this oil,
Lifted is the encounter with Death.
Let not the world ridicule this as an idle boast:
Vast loads of firewood are reduced to ashes by a tiny spark of fire.

                  Sikhism.  Adi Granth, Asa, M.1, p. 358

Every soul must taste of death, and We try you with evil and with good,
for ordeal.  And unto Us you will be returned.

                           Islam.  Qur'an 21.35

Rabbi Johanan said, "The Israelites are compared to an olive tree, because
as the olive yields its oil only by hard pressure, so the Israelites do
not return to righteousness except through suffering."

                      Judaism.  Talmud, Menahot 53b

We rejoice in our sufferings, knowing that suffering produces endurance,
and endurance produces character, and character produces hope, and hope
does not disappoint us, because God's love has been poured into our

                    Christianity.  Bible, Romans 5.3-5

In the whole world it is said that some part of the body is afflicted and
painful.  It is truly a signpost or guidance from God, though you are
ignorant of it.

                        Tenrikyo.  Ofudesaki 2.22

My son, do not despise the Lord's discipline
       or be weary of his reproof,
for the Lord reproves him whom he loves,
       as a father the son in whom he delights.

            Judaism and Christianity.  Bible, Proverbs 3.11-12

I know, O Lord, that the way of man is not in himself,
       that it is not in man who walks to direct his steps.
Correct me, O Lord, but in just measure;
       not in thy anger, lest thou bring me to nothing.

           Judaism and Christianity.  Bible, Jeremiah 10.23-24

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Japuji 38, M.1: Cf. Book of Certitude, 68-69, p. 805.  Menahot 53b: Cf.
Canticles Rabbah 2.5, p. 764.  Proverbs 3.11-12: Quoted in Hebrews
12.5-11. Cf. Job 1.6-12, p. 442; Deuteronomy 6.20-8.20, p. 1084; Book of
Mormon, Mosiah 3.19, p. 912.
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Yet the suffering
Involved in my awakening will have a limit;
It is like the suffering of having an incision made
In order to remove and destroy greater pain.

Even doctors eliminate illness
With unpleasant medical treatments,
So in order to overcome manifold sufferings
I should be able to put up with some discomfort.

But the Supreme Physician does not employ
Common medical treatments such as these,
With an extremely gentle technique
He remedies all the greatest sins.

      Buddhism.  Shantideva, Guide to the Bodhisattva's Way of Life

Do men imagine that they will be left [at ease] because they say, "We
believe," and will not be tested with affliction?  Lo!  We tested those
who were before you.  Thus God knows those who are sincere, and knows
those who feign.

                          Islam.  Qur'an 29.2-3

Mencius said, "Shun rose from the fields; Fu Yeh was raised to office from
among the builders; Chiao Ke from amid the fish and salt; Kuan Chung from
the hands of the prison officer; Sun Shu-ao from the sea and Po-li Hsi
from the market.  That is why Heaven, when it is about to place a great
burden on a man, always first tests his resolution, exhausts his frame and
makes him suffer starvation and hardship, frustrates his efforts so as to
shake him from his mental lassitude, toughen his nature, and make good his

                      Confucianism.  Mencius VI.B.15

If the Holy One is pleased with a man, he crushes him with painful
sufferings. For it is said, "And the Lord was pleased with him, hence he
crushed him by disease" (Isaiah 53.10).  Now, you might think that this is
so even if he did not accept them with love.  Therefore it is said, "To
see if his soul would offer itself in restitution."  Even as the
trespass-offering must be brought by consent, so also the sufferings must
be endured with consent.  And if he did accept them, what is his reward?
"He will see his seed, prolong his days."  And more than that, his
knowledge [of Torah] will endure with him. For it is said, "The purpose of
the Lord will prosper in his hand."

                       Judaism.  Talmud, Berakot 5a

- - - - - - - - - - - -
Qur'an 29.2-3: Cf. Qur'an 2.153-57, p. 745; 6.165, p. 707; 47.31, p. 468;
Majjhima Nikaya iii.21, p. 469; Job 1.6-12, p. 442; Sirach 6.7-17, p. 267;
Dahomey Song, p. 745.  Mencius VI.B.15: Cf. Luke 12.48, p. 707.  Berakot
5a: The Talmud is explicating on Isaiah 53.10, pp. 639f., a verse from
Isaiah's portrayal of God's suffering servant.  Cf. Job 23.3-10, p. 783.
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And to keep me from being too elated by the abundance of revelations, a
thorn was given me in the flesh, a messenger of Satan, to harass me, to
keep me from being too elated.  Three times I [Paul] besought the Lord
about this, that it should leave me; but he said to me, "My grace is
sufficient for you, for my power is made perfect in weakness."  I will all
the more gladly boast of my weaknesses, that the power of Christ may rest
upon me.  For the sake of Christ, then, I am content with weaknesses,
insults, hardships, persecutions, and calamities; for when I am weak, then
I am strong.

               Christianity.  Bible, 2 Corinthians 12.7-10

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2 Corinthians 12.7-10: Paul never specifies the nature of his 'thorn'; it
was most likely a physical ailment.  When he petitioned God for relief,
instead he received the response 'My grace is enough for you...' which he
takes to be a manifestation in his person of the message of the cross.
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